Concrete is the oldest and most widely used construction material and it is composed of cement, aggregates (coarse and fine) and water in certain particular proportions. It is easily obtainable, strong, durable and relatively cheap. However, the concrete industry is one of the major consumers of the natural resources. Majority of the cementitious binder used in concrete is based on Portland cement clinker which is an energy intensive process. In as much as global cement production was really affected by the pandemic since March of 2020, as the pandemic continues well into the first half of 2022 with no definite end in sight, visibility remains uncertain, but from current trends, the global cement growth outlook is expected to exhibit a V-shaped recovery. One tonne of cement production is responsible for one tonne of CO2 emission. Half of the CO2 is from the chemical process of clinker production, 40% burning fuel and the remaining 10% is split between electricity use and transportation. According to recent data, cement clinker production is the largest CO2 source among industrial processes. In such a bleak atmosphere, there is a large demand for alternative materials from industrial waste.
BSC CIVIL ENGINEERING
PROF. JOHN MWERO.
CHOKERA GLORIA GAKII. F16/101769/2017