Sanitation works have been existent since ancient times. Romans were among the first people to
develop sewer systems to get rid of waste that was excreted. This involved construction of
channels and building of pit latrines. The channels were regularly flushed with water.
When water is used in homes, schools, farms, industries and hospital, there is waste water
generated in this areas. If not properly handled, it leads to health hazards such as typhoid, and
cholera and related diseases such as malaria as it forms breeding grounds for mosquitoes. Thus
there is need to develop proper treatment systems for this waste water. This can be achieved
through soak pit tanks, sewer networks and treatment of the waste water.
Thika town has a big population that is growing rapidly and for this, it is important to consider
waste water disposal and treatment. The sewage system developed in the 1970s has had no major
reconstruction or additional of any new network. People fully developed these areas with sewer
networks and as population was increasing there was need of creating new estates in the
uninhabited areas. This led to new estates in the Eastern and Western regions of Thika, as the
residential areas and many slums in different sections in Thika. Recently emerged residential
areas include Landless with estates such Happy Valley, Gatundu, Riverside and Acacia,
Ngoingwa, Nanasi and Maua. The old estates consists of rented apartments while the new estates
are mainly private residential houses. The old sewer network involved pumping of sewage which
has high operational cost due to high population and rising fuel prices. The pumping generators
are expensive to maintain and replacement of the worn out machinery is expensive.
Since the establishment of Landless Estate in 2000, the residents of Landless have been
disposing waste water and sewage into septic tanks. The septic tanks have a short life span and
are expensive to construct, maintain and exhaust the sewage.
This has led to consideration of the redesign of the old sewer to minimize the pumping costs and
accommodate new estates in the network. There is also a proposed new waste water treatment
plant near Landless where the old and new sewerage system is to flow under gravity near River
Chania, up to the treatment plant. This project presents proposed simplified sewer system for
Landless Residents.