ANALYSIS OF WATER AND SANITATION PROBLEMS INASLUM SETTING; A CASE STUDY OF MUKURU KWAREUBEN

ABSTRACT


The purpose of the project was to study the water and sanitation problems that slum dwellers face.
Water and sanitation is one of the major problems that people living in informal settlement face.
Poor transmission network and cartels make it almost impossible to have individual connection since
they have the full control of connections.
The reason for studying water and sanitation was due to the high infant mortality due to waterborne
diseases as a result of drinking water contamination. A total of 200 questionnaires were circulated to
gather information on the problems encountered. The questionnaire gave information on the
household income, water sources and sufficiency, distance from the water sources, water buying
frequency, Cost of water per 20 litres, consumption, water payment method, waste water disposal,
house refuse disposal and available sanitary facilities. The average household income lie between
ksh 5000 and 10000 per month, which is below the set poverty line. 71% of the households use water
from water vending kiosks and transit Lorries. Among these, 45% which is the greatest percentage
walked a distance of between 5-20 metres to get water while some had to walk almost 200 metres to
get water. Water is mostly bought once a day at averagely sh 5 per 20 litres where its paid everytime
its fetched. Buying of packed drinking water was found to be very rare with only 19% buying packed
water. Approximately 30% were found to be harvesting rain water which could not be recommended.
Only 23% disposed house refuse by municipal services while the rest either burn or threw on the
streets. Grey water was either thrown on the streets by 8% with 73% throwing into the ditches. The
available sanitary facilities were found as; pourflash squat platform used by 61% at a service charge
of Sh 5 or sh 3 per visit, 29% used pit latrines while those living in institutions were connected to a
septic tank.
The water consumed per person per day was approximately 20 litres as recommended by MoWI. The
supply network was not sufficient and same applied to the sewer network. It was found out that
misuse of the storm water drainage was common by disposal of solid waste and faecal material in the
drains. Excreta disposal facilities had improved significantly.

 

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