Review of Grout Material in Difficult Dam Foundations with Emphasis on Cement-Bentonite Material

Grouting is a popular ground treatment technique, but not well known to most in the engineering
industry. A lot of misconceptions surround this subject. This dissertation presents the research on
grouting in an attempt to clarify the basic parameters involved such as permeability, to provide a
full coverage on the practices in use in the recent past to help aid in its use currently and to report
on their effects to the environment.
Cement based grout is the main material in focus and with the use of documented case studies,
this paper provides a brief discussion of the effectiveness in foundation treatment.
The application of cement based permeation grouting is still largely a trial and error process in
the current practice, especially in the local construction industry.