Investigating the effect of partial replacement of aggregates by clay waste products in concrete

The author intends to investigate the performance clay based aggregates in concrete with a view of
achieving the target compressive strengths specified in concrete mix design. The author will also explore
the performance of clay based aggregates in comparison with the normal granitic aggregates. Particular
emphasis being recovery of clay waste from the manufacturing industries such as Kenya Clay Products
LTD etc.
Clay waste products have in the past been disposed by either land dumping or filling depressions on
roads. The scenario is common among the manufacturing industries. The land dumping disposal method
is expensive as it involves excavation of land, transportation of waste product to the disposal site and
compaction of the material in layers.
Furthermore, the production of normal aggregates and building stones through quarrying is an
expensive process. Quarrying involves deep excavation and blasting of rocks. This has created an
unpleasant environment by leaving scars on land. The author developed interest on noticing land
degradation in Ndarugu area in Thika district where mining of machine cut stones are extensively

Clay waste products chips when crushed to the required nominal sizes such as 10mm, 14mm, 20mm,
40mm etc. provide a rough and irregular surface which aids in bonding of cement paste and the
aggregate. Therefore the bond strength of concrete is likely to be increased when these aggregates are
used. Careful consideration of the water absorption of clay based aggregates will be taken in the mix
design to ensure that the workability of the mix is achieved.
This project tries to encourage the recovery of waste materials to be used in production of aggregates
for concrete hence conserving the environment.


Ishak Waleed Esmail M.pdf3.91 MB
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